Apart from RPGs (where the number-crunching essentially defines the genre), any game where statistics were originally used to simulate action and/or dynamic values can now be done via actual gameplay actions (i.e how high you can jump, hard you hit, etc.) and graphical indicators. I'm not saying numbers are bad, but depending on how you wish to present your game, you can honestly do without them.
In terms of seeing how much damage the player (or the enemy) will cause, I would consider taking AndrewFM's advice
and having parts of the bar shaded to show how much damage either will cause, with one caveat; follow ezuk's advice
and not reveal this information initially. Include it after you've attacked once, after you've taken a photograph, or via some kind of tool / ability the player character obtains. For example...
The first bar shows a shaded area; this is how much damage the enemy will cause if he hits the player. The SECOND bar takes that information and applies it to the entire health gauge; each hit from the enemy will take off one division of health. An enemy that causes less damage would look more like this, where the divisions are smaller;
Again, I would keep this information hidden until the player attacks / photographs / earns the ability / whatever.
I also think that labeling equipment with symbolic ratings rather than numerals can help 'de-math' your game. If you decide you'll have 5 weapons in the game, of increasing attack power, you might identify them with stars, bullets, or an appropriate symbol rather than say "+5 attack power". Obviously a *** Weapon is better than a ** Weapon, for example.
Finally, I'm not a fan of the multi-bar method Jakman4242 suggests
. Having small pips representing additional health bars the player has to burn through (or "x2", "x3", etc... as iffi mentioned
), at least to me, suggests a degree of tedium, even if the fight itself isn't actually tedious. To me, that sort of thing is saying "Look how much more impressive this enemy is; instead of having one health bar, it has two! That means it's twice as hard!". I'd much rather see smaller chunks taken off the same bar than see the same chunks taken off multiple bars, if that makes any sense.