Anyway, by economy I meant the links and interactions between the systems of the world, that sit on top of and maybe modify the geography. I'm not exactly sure what the world of your game is (although I just read up on Blame! - sounds awesome) so I'm being vague, but I guess it means the territory-level stuff in your example. Maybe also stuff like how various districts of the city (?) are connected and differentiated, subway networks, highways.
So far, the geography is
the system. There is nothing but geography. This geography is a network of interlinked corridors. One of the goals of this project is to "lend a voice" to the underlying noise functions. As of today, the voice is rather monotonous. However, by layering noise functions and adding more and more variables controlled by the noise, I hope to bring about the differentiation of which you speak.
Although frankly, I think I have to sleep on that concept of "economy". I'm still not sure what you mean by it.
What do you mean by cyclic? I should probably post up the method in my project thread... I have a rough description lying around somewhere.
By the way, my worlds are nothing like this scale. They're only islands, currently with a max size of 128x128 squares.
From the procedurally-generated techniques I am aware of, usually there is a "cyclic" approach of first carving out the land mass, then juggling some pieces around so they seem more connectible, then connecting them in a logical manner, then populating them with appropriate tiles, etc... Or some variation thereof. The world I am building literally has no end, in any direction, which is easy to build if you're into monotony
... but this technique builds directly upon 3D distributions of noise. So in a way, each area is autonomous, and there is no reliable way to use a "cyclic" or "multi-pass" algorithm to define each square (because it would differ depending on the immediate surroundings, and therefore change depending on which way you approach). One of the rules that helped build this idea from the start was the concept of absolute coordinates. I have hopes of multiple people running around an infinite dungeon of the Megastructure, and this view needs to be consistent regardless of platform, time, space, or whatever.